History of Gold in 10 Parts: From 4,600 BC to the 21th Century – All You Need to Know

This is an extensive overview of the history of gold in ten parts – from its origins in the universe to the 21th century. Le’ts start with an infograpic about the history of gold.

Jump right to the article below.

Infographic about the history of gold:

Infographic about the history of gold in ten parts.
Infographic about the history of gold in ten parts.


Gold has always been at the center of human history due to its malleability, resistance to tarnish, and captivating allure. 

  • Even though it is a rare metal, unlike other metals it occures in its natural state in rivers, therefore gold mining can be accomplished by simple tools at river banks.
  • Its softness makes it easy to work on (a bite on gold leaves marks).
  • As a symbol of wealth and power, gold quickly became an embodiment of the prestige and strength of its possessor.
  • For several millennia, gold was primarily employed in the production of items like jewelry and religious idols.
  • However, a shift occurred around 1500 BC when Egypt, which profited immensely from its gold-rich region, Nubia, designated gold as the primary medium of exchange for international trade.
medieval king wealth and power - history of gold.jpg
Medieval king wealth and power – history of gold.

Over the past several millennia, gold has been pivotal for various purposes:

  • Commodity: Gold’s diverse applications range from creating intricate pieces of jewelry to critical components in modern electronics.
  • Medium of exchange: Owing to its universal acceptance, gold coins were used as a standard form of currency, with the first known gold coins being minted in the Kingdom of Lydia around 700 BC.
  • Store of value: Historically and in the present day, gold has been a safe haven investment, often providing a hedge against inflation and currency fluctuations.

The Origin of Gold

Gold, like other heavy elements, is thought to have originated in the universe through a process known as stellar nucleosynthesis:

  • This process involves the creation of new atomic nuclei from pre-existing protons and neutrons under extreme temperatures and pressures, as found in stars. The process of creating gold specifically is believed to occur during supernova nucleosynthesis and the collision of neutron stars.
  • After these events, the gold (and other heavy elements) would have been incorporated into the gas and dust that formed the Solar System, and eventually the Earth, about 4.5 billion years ago.
  • Over billions of years, geological processes have concentrated this gold into deposits that we can mine today.

The Role of Gold in Ancient Civilizations

From the Varna Necropolis where gold artifacts date back to 4,600 BC, to the impressive gold relics of Ancient Egypt and Greece, this metal has played a pivotal role in the fabric of early societies. These civilizations, though diverse in their cultural practices and beliefs, shared a universal reverence for gold.

Gold’s roles in these ancient civilizations were multifaceted:

  • Religious offerings: Gold was frequently used in religious rites and ceremonies.
  • Symbol of divine connection: Many cultures believed gold to be an embodiment of the divine, leading to its extensive use in religious artifacts and structures.
  • Aesthetics: Gold’s appeal transcended its material value, being used for adornment and as a medium for artistic expression.

Regardless of the civilization or era, gold has held its own unique cultural significance and practical use.

Read more about gold in religion.

Part 1: Gold in Ancient Civilizations

The narrative of gold in history traces the story of mankind itself. As we journey from the earliest civilizations around 4,600 BC to the end of the Roman Empire around 500 AD, we see how gold played a central role in societal development and cultural identity.

Gold at Varna Necropolis

Our journey begins at the Varna Necropolis, located in present-day Bulgaria:

  • This archaeological site, dating back to 4,600 BC, is home to the world’s oldest known processed gold artifacts.
  • The extensive collection includes over 3,000 intricate gold items, weighting over 6.5 kg, signifying the cultural importance of this precious metal in ancient societies.

Gold in Ancient Egypt

Ram's-head Amulet made of gold from Classical Egypt (Wikipedia/ Metropolitan Museum of Art CC0 1.0)
Ram’s-head Amulet made of gold from Classical Egypt (Metropolitan Museum of Art CC0 1.0)

In the 5th millennium BC, gold made its appearance in Egypt, playing later a dominant role in the culture of Ancient Egypt.

  • As one of the first civilizations to engage in systematic gold mining, Egyptians recognized the potential of gold beyond its aesthetic appeal. Their main gold mining sides were the Nubian lands.
  • Revered as the “flesh of the gods“, gold was an integral part of their spiritual beliefs and rituals.
  • Egyptian pharaohs were often interred with elaborate gold artifacts, indicative of their status in this life and the next. From grand architecture to intricate jewelry, the use of gold in Egypt was a testament to their advanced skills and deep reverence for this radiant metal.
  • The mask of Tutankhamun and the many gold artefacts found in the tomb of this pharao are evidence of the Egyptian’s high level of artistery in the field of metalwork.
  • Egyptians were the first to smelt gold in 3600 BC.
  • In 1200 BC Egyptians invented the lost-wax technique. This is used to this day.
  • Egyptians are the first to mix gold with other metals (alloy) to increase the hardness.
  • Egyptians intoduced the shekel coin with a standardized weight of 11.3 gram.

Gold in the Sumer Civilization

In the Sumer civilization, a cultural crossroads that thrived from 4500 to 1900 BC, gold was prized for its aesthetic appeal and its religious significance:

  • It was extensively used for crafting jewelry, ceremonial objects, and ornamental fixtures in temples and palaces.
  • As a center of sumerian civilization, the city of Ur florished between 2900 and 2300 BC in ancient mesopotamia, in present day Iraq.
  • Artifacts like the “Ram in a Thicket” from the Royal Cemetery at Ur showcase the Sumerians’ advanced gold-working techniques and the value they placed on gold.
  • The body of the queen was decorated with beadwork of hundreds of rows of gold and other materials; her head carried a gold headdress.
Ram in a Thicket from the royal cemetry of Ur .
Ram in a Thicket from the royal cemetry of Ur

Gold in Classical Greece

As we move to Ancient Greece around 800 BC, we find gold continuing to hold significant cultural and practical value. Greeks were master goldsmiths, crafting intricate jewelry, decorative statues, and coins from this precious metal.

  • In 560 BC the Greek begin mining gold in the Mediterranean.
  • Alexander the great loots the Persian gold treasure.
  • The legend of King Midas, who was cursed with a golden touch, encapsulates the allure and peril associated with gold in Greek mythology.
  • Greeks begin the quest to turn base metals into gold, which is called alchemy.

Watch this video about King Midas:

Gold in Classical Rome

The Roman Empire, spanning from 27 BC to around 500 AD, held an expansive territory and immense wealth, with gold at the heart of its prosperity.

  • Julius Caesar bounty of a successful campaign in today’s France (Gaul) to give 200 gold cions to each of his soldiers.
  • Romans established large-scale gold mining operations, notably in regions like Spain and Romania, here for the first time hydraulic mining was used.
  • They used gold in public statues and buildings, reflecting the grandeur of the empire.
  • Gold coins, called ‘aureus‘, became a cornerstone of the Roman economy, serving as the standard currency. They were introduced in 50 BC.
  • Gold wasn’t merely a commodity in Rome, it was a symbol of imperial wealth, power, and ambition.
  • The romans used gold powder to color glass and ornaments.
Mining in the Roman empire.
Mining in the Roman empire.

In each of these civilizations, gold held a unique significance, shaping their cultural, economic, and political landscapes. It stood as a testament to human ingenuity, power, and the quest for immortality and divine connection. This universal reverence for gold, transcending geographical boundaries and temporal epochs, truly underscores its unique place in human history.

Roman Gold Coin (Art Institute of Chicago)
Roman Gold Coin (Art Institute of Chicago)

Part 2: Gold as a Medium of Exchange

As societies evolved, so did their trade practices and economic systems. A significant milestone in this progression was the use of gold as a medium of exchange:

  • This practice was adopted by various civilizations and kingdoms, but the transition truly materialized in the Kingdom of Lydia, around 700 BC.
  • As a note, coins made of other materials were used earlier than gold coins. For example coins made of copper and silver were introduced in India as early as 1,000 BC. Before that, organic materials, e.g. made of shells had the function of money.
Map of the kingdom of Lydia
Map of the kingdom of Lydia (wikipedia/ Cattette CC BY 4.0).

Gold as a Form of Currency in the Kingdom of Lydia

The Kingdom of Lydia, situated in present-day Turkey, is often credited with introducing the first standardized gold coins around 700 BC. These coins, stamped with emblems and designs, were not just precious but also practical – transforming gold from a treasured possession into a quantifiable and transferable form of wealth. The Lydians’ innovation, in essence, laid the foundation for modern currency systems.

Gold Coin from the Kingdom of Lydia, reign of King Croesus 700 BC.
Gold Coin from the Kingdom of Lydia, reign of King Croesus 700 BC (wikipedia/ Classical Numismatic Group CC-BY-SA 3.0).

The Evolution of Gold as a Medium of Exchange

The use of gold coins as a medium of exchange swiftly spread across regions and civilizations. The Ancient Greeks quickly adopted the Lydian innovation, minting their own coins that bore the portraits of their gods, heroes, and rulers. Similarly, the Roman Empire used gold aureus and solidus coins that represented imperial wealth and power.

Here are key features of these early gold coins:

  • Standardized Weight: Gold coins had a standard weight which made transactions consistent and reliable.
  • Stamps: They were usually stamped with symbols, images, or inscriptions signifying the authority of the issuer.

The introduction of gold coins revolutionized commerce, fostering trade relations and economic growth among nations.

Developments in China

  • In the 5th or 6th century BC the Ying Yuan, was introduced in China in the state of Chu.
  • This was an early form of gold coin. Square in shape and stamped.
Ying Yuan squared gold coin from China.
Ying Yuan squared gold coin from China (wikpedia/ Deadkid dk CC BY-SA 3.0).

The Impact of Gold on International Trade

As international trade routes expanded, gold became a universally recognized medium of exchange. The desire for gold and the wealth it represented spurred exploratory voyages and conquests, shaping the course of history.

The Silk Road, a significant trade route linking the East and the West around 200 BC, saw gold coins from various empires exchange hands, enhancing trade relations and mutual cultural appreciation. Gold coins of the same weight had the same value everywhere. Thus, fixed exchange rates were not necessary. The main coins found along the silk road were the silver drachm of the Sasanian empire and the gold solidus of the Byzantine empire (Eastern Rome).

In later centuries, the thirst for gold would drive explorations of new continents, further amplifying gold’s influence on global affairs.

Short video about the Silk Road and how it actually worked:

In summary, gold’s evolution from a decorative and ritualistic material to a standardized medium of exchange revolutionized economic systems, trade practices, and power dynamics on a global scale.

Part 3: Gold in the Middle Ages

The Middle Ages, spanning from the 5th to the 15th century AD, marked an era of profound transformation across continents, embodying the rise and fall of empires, technological advancements, and cultural revolutions. Gold, in its myriad forms and purposes, remained an integral part of this historic era, shaping economies, influencing art, and underpinning power structures in various civilizations.

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (748–814) was King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, and the first Holy Roman Emperor.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (748–814) was King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, and the first Holy Roman Emperor (wikipedia/ Beckstet CC BY-SA 3.0).

Gold in the Byzantine Empire

As the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire (330–1453 AD) inherited the Roman legacy of gold.

  • Gold was central to the Byzantine economic and artistic identity.
  • The gold solidus, a stable and widely accepted coin, established the financial supremacy of the empire. Bearing portraits of emperors and empresses, the solidus not only facilitated trade but also broadcast the grandeur and divine mandate of Byzantine rulers across Europe and Asia.
  • In the realm of art and architecture, the use of gold was prolific. Byzantine art, known for its spiritual intensity and opulent aesthetics, frequently employed gold to embellish mosaics, icons, and religious artifacts, lending them a divine radiance that was integral to the spiritual experience.
Figure 5: map of the Byzantine empire 1250 (wikipedia/ J. Schwerdtfeger CC BY-SA 2.5).
Figure 5: map of the Byzantine empire 1250 (wikipedia/ J. Schwerdtfeger CC BY-SA 2.5).

The Use of Gold in the Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age (8th to 14th century) was a period of cultural, scientific, and economic flourishing in the history of the Islamic World.

  • The introduction of a standardized gold coin, the dinar, in 696, by the Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan with a weight of 4.25 gram. It underpinned the vibrant trade network that spanned the vast Islamic Caliphate, from Spain in the west to India in the east. The widespread use of dinars enabled a uniform and reliable mode of transaction, contributing significantly to the economic prosperity of this era.
  • Not only a gold coin was introduced, but a whole bimetallic currency system consisting of gold and silver coinds.
The holy text of the Qur'an written in black Naskh cursive on gold-coated paper (University of Notre Dame).
The holy text of the Qur’an written in black Naskh cursive on gold-coated paper(University of Notre Dame).
  • In addition to its economic role, gold also found its place in cultural and intellectual exchanges that characterized the Islamic Golden Age.
  • Gold was used to inscribe scientific texts, embellish architecture, and craft intricate jewelry, enhancing the aesthetic richness of this period.
Umayyad gold dinar minted in Damaskus from 697 AD (wikipedia/ Khalili Collections CC-BY-SA 3.0).
Umayyad gold dinar minted in Damaskus from 697 AD (Khalili Collections CC-BY-SA 3.0)).

Gold in Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe (5th to 15th century) saw the minting of gold coins like:

  • The Venetian gold ducate was minted from 1284. It contained 0.11 troy ounces (3.5 gram) of fine gold. It became the most popular gold coin in Europe for around 500 years.
  • Of nearly the same gold content was the Florin (Fiorino d’oro) minted from 1252 till 1533 and also used all over Europe. Variants were the Rheingulden from German lands and the Dutch Guilder.
  • The English also issued the Florin (1284), followed by the Noble from 1344, the Angel, Crown and Guinea.
  • The French produced the Écu d’or (since 1266).
  • In 1787, the first gold coin was minted in the United States by the goldsmith Ephraim Brasher. This coin is known as the Brasher gold doubloon.
Florint Gold Coin minted from 1252 onwards.
Florint Gold Coin minted from 1252 onwards (wikipedia/ Classical Numismatic Group CC BY-SA 3.0).

Gold’s spiritual significance was manifested in the opulent use of the metal in churches and religious artifacts. The use of gold in the creation of sacred objects, like reliquaries and altar pieces, was believed to symbolize the divine glory of God. Meanwhile, monarchs and nobles displayed their wealth and status through lavish gold jewelry and decorated attire.

Portable altar made of gold from mediveal Germany (The Cleveland Museum of Arts)
Portable altar made of gold from mediveal Germany (The Cleveland Museum of Arts)

Techniques such as gilding and the application of gold leaf emerged during this period, allowing for the extensive use of gold in illuminated manuscripts, sculptures, and architectural decorations. These techniques profoundly influenced European art and left a lasting aesthetic legacy.

Gold in Africa during Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, Africa was the hub of powerful empires and prosperous city-states, greatly influenced by the presence and trade of gold.

Trans-Saharan Gold Trade

Gold and other precious commodities were moved through the Sahara desert to the Mediteranean areas at least since 500 BC.

  • At this time camels were introduced as pack animals for the trans-Saharan gold trade. This route might have existed earlier during classic Greek and Roman times. This however is still a debate among historians.
  • The peak of the trans-Saharan trade was between the 7th and 12th century, with empires participating in it from the Niger river to the coast (Sonike, Mali, Asante).
  • The trade along the route shifted gradually to coastal trade, conducted by European powers such as the Dutch and the Portugese.
Trans-Saharan trade route in medieval time
Trans-Saharan trade route in medieval time (modern Niger highlighted) (wikipedia/ T L Miles public domain).

Mali Empire and Gold

The Mali Empire (1235-1670 AD), one of the most prosperous African empires.

  • The Empire was renowned for its abundant gold reserves. For some time, its mines were responsible for half of the worldwide gold production.
  • The empire’s wealth was most famously displayed during Emperor Mansa Musa‘s hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca in 1324. The grandeur of his caravan, which reportedly included 100 camels each carrying 300 pounds of gold, left an indelible mark on global perceptions of Africa’s wealth.
Mali Empire, Mansa Musa its most famous king (wikipeadia/ HistoryNmoor CC-BY-SA 4.0).

Kingdom of Zimbabwe and Gold Trade

The Kingdom of Zimbabwe (1220–1450 AD) was a Shona trading empire that controlled much of the East African coast from the 11th to the 15th centuries.

  • It owed its prosperity to the lucrative gold and ivory trade.
  • This kingdom, known for its magnificent stone structures, controlled significant gold mines within its territory. The gold extracted was traded across the African continent and even reached far-flung markets through the Indian Ocean trade network.
  • Some estimates indicate that more than 20 million ounces of gold were extracted from the ground.
  • The Soninke managed to keep the source of their gold (the Bambuk mines, most notably) secret from Muslim traders, and gold production and trade were important activities that undoubtedly mobilized hundreds of thousands of African people.

Video: A quick history of the great Zimbabwe Empire:


Part 4: Gold in the Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration, also known as the Age of Discovery, spanning from the 15th to the 17th centuries, heralded a period of intensive overseas exploration led primarily by European explorers. The driving force behind this quest for discovery was for many the pursuit of wealth, often in the shape of gold. The allure of this precious metal catalyzed voyages, led to the establishment of new colonies, and even shifted the balance of power in the world.

Coronado's march by Frederic Remington 1898.
Coronado’s march by Frederic Remington 1898.

Gold in the New World

  • The New World, encompassing the Americas and the Caribbean, held a promise of unimaginable wealth, primarily due to its reputed reserves of gold.
  • This lure of gold enticed explorers, adventurers, and conquerors to venture into uncharted territories, leaving indelible marks on these landscapes and their native populations.
  • In 1700 gold is discovered in Brazil, making it the biggest gold producer 1720 with 2/3 of the world output.
Melting gold in the 16th century in South America.
Melting gold in the 16th century in South America.

El Dorado Myth

The myth of El Dorado, a city brimming with gold, or a king adorned in gold, sparked numerous expeditions into the heart of South America. Despite no credible evidence to back this tale, the El Dorado myth was potent enough to fuel exploration, shape narratives, and even justify the harsh treatment of indigenous populations.

Video: El Dorado: myth or reality?

Spanish Conquest and Gold

  • The Spanish Conquest in the 16th century stands out as one of the most significant chapters in the history of the New World.
  • Motivated by tales of vast gold reserves, the Spanish conquistadors, led by figures like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, embarked on expeditions that resulted in the subjugation of vast empires like the Aztec and the Inca.
  • The Spanish King Ferdinand‘s call in 1511 to its solders was:  “Get gold, humanely if you can. But at all hazards, get gold.”

The looting of immense quantities of gold from these conquered lands altered the Spanish economy and Europe’s financial landscape. From ornate religious artifacts to ceremonial objects and personal adornments, gold flowed into Spain, triggering an era known as the “Golden Age.”

Gold in Africa during European Colonization

While the New World was being charted and conquered, the Age of Exploration also led to increased European interest in another gold-rich continent – Africa. Long known as a source of gold (see also trans-Saharan trade), Africa’s mineral wealth was a compelling draw for European powers.

In the early stages of exploration, the Portuguese established trading posts along the African coast, tapping into the already thriving gold trade networks in West Africa. Their initial monopoly was soon challenged by other European powers like the Dutch, English, and French, leading to conflicts and marking the beginning of colonial competition over Africa’s resources.

  • Initially, Europe’s main interest in Ghana (then known as the Gold Coast) was as a source of gold, which was readily available on the coast in exchange for European exports such as cloth, hardware, beads, metals, spirits, arms, and ammunition. This gave rise to the name Gold Coast, by which the country was known until 1957.
  • The collapse of the gold standard in Africa during the period of colonial conquest in Africa led to the introduction of European currencies and colonial currencies linked to them
Map of the colonialization of Africa.
Map of the colonialization of Africa.

In the grand tapestry of the Age of Exploration, gold threads its way through various narratives, from adventurous expeditions to the rise and fall of empires. The enduring allure of gold influenced the course of history, demonstrating its timeless value and influence.

Part 5: Gold in Asia

Asia’s engagement with gold spans thousands of years, marking significant events and transitions in its various societies. This section explores the role of gold in four significant Asian historical periods.

Gold in the Abbasid Caliphate

From the 8th to the 13th centuries, the Abbasid Caliphate was a center of cultural, scientific, and economic progress.

  • Gold, particularly the gold dinar, served as an essential currency unit, encouraging local and international trade.
  • The Caliphate’s financial practices, many gold-backed, laid the foundation for several modern economic systems.
  • The wide circulation of gold dinars supported the thriving Abbasid economy, enabling scientific and cultural advancements.

Video: The Abbasid Calliphate explained:

Gold in the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire, lasting from the 14th to the early 20th centuries, utilized gold extensively.

  • Gold coins, such as the Sultani, were minted and circulated throughout the empire and beyond, influencing international trade.
  • The empire’s significant gold resources financed substantial projects, including military campaigns and public works.
  • Gold served as a symbol of wealth and power, used extensively in tributes and rewards within the empire.
Gold coin of the Ottoman Empire: Sultani from Ahmed III, 1703.
Gold coin of the Ottoman Empire: Sultani from Ahmed III, 1703.

Figure 13: Gold coin of the Ottoman Empire: Sultani from Ahmed III, 1703.

Gold in Meiji Era Japan

During the Meiji Era (1868 – 1912), Japan’s relationship with gold was notable.

  • The era saw Japan adopt the Gold Standard (1.5g of gold for 1 yen), prompting increased gold mining activities across the nation. The Sado and Toi gold mines were of particular importance.
  • Gold was used in several cultural and artistic expressions, such as Kanazawa gold leaf crafting and kimpaku decorations.
  • Gold trade influenced Japan’s modernization efforts, providing the financial resources necessary for infrastructure development and Westernization.

Gold in Qing Dynasty China

Gold’s role in the Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1912) was multifaceted.

  • While gold was used less in the monetary system compared to silver, it was heavily used in arts, culture, and architecture.
  • Several gold mines operated across China, particularly in the northeastern provinces.
  • Gold also had a place in traditional Chinese medicine and alchemy, believed to contribute to longevity and vitality.
Elaborate gold techniques from the chinese goldsmiths (poster for exibition at the Art Museum of the Chinese University of Hong Kong).
Elaborate gold techniques from the chinese goldsmiths (poster for exibition at the Art Museum of the Chinese University of Hong Kong).

Overall, gold has played a fundamental role in Asia’s historical timeline. Its value extends beyond mere currency, permeating cultural expressions, trade practices, and economic systems.

Part 6: Gold Rushes in the 19th Century

The 19th century was a notable period in the global history of gold, marked by significant gold discoveries that triggered a series of frenzied migrations of people, popularly known as gold rushes. At most gold rushes, gold was found in rivers and could therefore easily be fetched, without much equipment from the water (even tough only a small number of prospectors got rich).

A gold rush can be defined as a rapid influx of prospectors and miners to a region where gold has been discovered. These events were characterized by a compelling blend of ambition, desperation, and the universal human longing for prosperity and a better life.

During the gold rush, gold panning: prospector looking for on the river.
During the gold rush, gold panning: prospector looking for on the river.

From the chilly rivers of the Klondike to the sun-baked plains of Australia, these gold rushes often led to rapid population growth, economic boom, and sometimes, profound socio-cultural change. They were among the most exciting and transformative periods of the 19th century, reshaping nations and forging new ones. The most impactful gold rushes were:

  • Starting in 1848 and continuing until 1855, the California Gold Rush began when James W. Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California. The news spread quickly, attracting hundreds of thousands of prospectors over the next few years.
  • Similarly, in 1851, Edward Hargraves’s significant gold findings in New South Wales triggered the Australian Gold Rush.
  • The late 19th century saw another significant event: the Klondike Gold Rush. Starting in 1896 and lasting until 1899, this rush was triggered by the discovery of gold in Rabbit Creek, Yukon.
  • In South Africa, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush began in 1868 following the discovery of the world’s largest gold deposit in the Witwatersrand Basin by George Harrison who dug up stones to build a house.

The 19th-century gold rushes left indelible marks on the landscapes and societies they touched, fundamentally shaping the regions involved. The impact of these events continues to reverberate in our global economic and cultural narratives.

Read more about gold rushes from the 17th century till the 1980s.

Part 7: Gold Standard

The gold standard represents an essential chapter in the history of gold. This monetary system, wherein the value of a country’s currency or paper money has a direct and fixed relation to gold, became a linchpin of global economies during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Video: Gold Standard explained in one minute:

Concept and Development

The gold standard system came into operation in the 19th century. This system was designed to bring monetary stability by tying currencies to a specific quantity of gold. This link provided a tangible measure of value, facilitating easier international trade. The rationale was simple: gold has intrinsic value, is limited in quantity, and cannot be arbitrarily manufactured.

  • Countries adopting the gold standard committed to convert paper money into a fixed amount of gold.
  • This system ensured that the government could only print as much money as its country had in gold reserves.

Countries That Used the Gold Standard

The United Kingdom was the first country to adopt the gold standard formally, in 1821. Other nations soon followed, recognizing the system’s potential for stabilizing economies and promoting international trade.

  • By the late 19th century, almost all major nations, including the United States, various European powers and even Japan, were on some form of the gold standard.
  • The global adoption of the gold standard facilitated a period of extraordinary stability and economic expansion known as the “classical” gold standard era.

Impact of Gold Standard on the World Economy

The gold standard had profound impacts on the global economy, influencing monetary policy, international trade, and financial stability.

  • It provided a sense of financial security and stability, as currencies were backed by the tangible value of gold.
  • The standard facilitated the expansion of global trade by reducing the risk of currency devaluation.
  • However, it also limited the flexibility of governments to respond to economic crises, as they could only print money based on their gold reserves.

The gold standard was a defining period in the history of gold, marking its pinnacle as the foundation of economic systems. However, the rigidity of the system also exposed economies to potential financial crises, eventually leading to its abandonment in the 20th century. Nonetheless, the era of the gold standard underscores gold’s enduring relevance and its intricate relationship with global economic structures.

End of the Gold Standard

The gold standard began to unravel with the onset of World War I, as many countries needed more flexibility to finance their war efforts. However, it was not until the Great Depression in the 1930s that most countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, completely abandoned the gold standard.

  • The gold standard restricted the ability of governments to inflate their currencies to manage economic downturns.
  • The abandonment of the gold standard gave central banks more control over monetary policy, allowing them to respond more effectively to economic crises.

The era following the gold standard marked a significant shift in the global financial landscape. It was an era defined by economic experimentation, volatility, and the quest for a viable alternative to the gold standard.

Read more about the gold standard.

Part 8: Gold in the Late 20th Century

As we entered the latter half of the 20th century, the role and value of gold underwent significant changes. Moving away from the gold standard, nations started to realize the potential and flexibility of fiat money systems. However, gold continued to hold its own, adapting to new economic realities.

From Gold Standard to Fiat Money

Following the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early 1970s, countries worldwide began shifting towards fiat money systems. These currencies, not backed by physical commodities like gold, derive their value from the economic stability and creditworthiness of the nations issuing them.

The Bretton Woods System explained in a short video:

  • The move towards fiat currencies marked a considerable shift in economic thought. Nations were now able to exercise greater control over their monetary policies, manipulating their currencies to stimulate growth or control inflation.
  • However, this new freedom also came with its share of risks. Without the inherent stability provided by gold, economies became more vulnerable to shocks and fluctuations.

Gold in the Era of Economic Fluctuations

Despite the shift away from the gold standard, gold’s value in the global economy remained undiminished. During periods of economic instability, gold often acted as a safe haven for investors.

  • For instance, in the late 1970s, the United States faced a period of rapid inflation. During this time, gold prices soared, peaking in 1980 at a then-record high of $850 per ounce.
  • Similarly, during the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997, gold prices again saw a significant upswing as investors sought safe and stable assets amidst the economic turmoil.
Gold and the US Dollar from 1971 till today (FT)
Gold and the US Dollar from 1971 till today (FT).

Gold in the Digital Age

As we approached the turn of the 21st century, the internet began to revolutionize every aspect of our lives, including how we deal with gold. The advent of the digital age brought about new opportunities and challenges for gold.

  • The digital revolution gave rise to gold-backed electronic currencies and online platforms for buying and selling gold. This brought gold trading into the realm of everyday investors, democratizing access to this valuable asset.
  • On the flip side, the rise of digital currencies like Bitcoin, often referred to as “digital gold”, posed new challenges for gold. These cryptocurrencies offer a modern alternative to gold, particularly for those seeking a hedge against traditional financial systems.

Through all these changes, gold has remained a fixture in our economic landscape, adapting and thriving amidst new realities. As we moved into the 21st century, gold’s journey took on a new direction, shaped by technological advancements and evolving economic thought.

Part 9: Gold Trade and Economy

Gold has always held an influential position in global trade and economics. Its value, rarity, and universal acceptance have made it a significant economic tool for nations and a reliable investment for individuals.

Role of Gold in Global Economy

Gold has been central to international trade for millennia, acting as a universally accepted medium of exchange. Its integral role in global economics has transcended ages and civilizations.

  • In the Middle Ages, gold was instrumental in fostering trade relations between East and West, with the Silk Road acting as a significant conduit for the gold trade.
  • In more recent times, despite the cessation of the Gold Standard, gold still remains a significant player in international finance. Central banks and financial institutions continue to rely on gold reserves as a hedge against economic uncertainty.

Gold Reserves and Central Banks

Central banks worldwide hold substantial reserves of gold as part of their foreign exchange reserves. These gold reserves play a crucial role in maintaining financial stability and instilling confidence in a nation’s economy.

British gold reserves from 1950 to today (wikipedia/ Tsange CC BY-SA 3.0)
British gold reserves from 1950 to today (wikipedia/ Tsange CC BY-SA 3.0).
  • As of 2023, the United States holds the most extensive gold reserves globally, with over 8,133.5 metric tons of gold, representing about 78% of its total foreign exchange reserves.
  • Central banks, such as the European Central Bank and the People’s Bank of China, also maintain significant gold reserves, using them as a strategic asset to bolster their economic strength and financial credibility.

Gold as an Investment

Gold’s enduring value has made it a popular choice for investors. Its price is generally inversely correlated with the stock market, making it a valuable asset in diversifying investment portfolios and mitigating risks.

Video: The Gold Market explained:

  • Gold had a fixed price of $35 per ounce until 1967 when the metal was allowed to float freely on the market. This led to a short-lived price increase of $870 on decade later during the oil crisis. The peak was surpassed only in 2007 in the shadow of the global financial crisis. The price contineud climbing until reaching $1879 in 2011 und reaching more than $2000 for one ounce in history in 2022.
  • Today, investing in gold can take multiple forms – from purchasing physical gold (bars or coins) to investing in gold ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds) or gold mining stocks.
  • Gold Coins: The second part of the 20th century witnesses the minting of gold coins for investors (one ounce and smaller weights) with a price only slightly higher than the spot market price for gold. The South-African Krugerrand (1967) kicked it off. Followed by other coins in Western markets, such as the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf (1979), American Gold Eagle (1986), the Vienna Philharmonic Coin and the Britannia (1989).

The role of gold in the global economy, central bank reserves, and as an investment highlights its ongoing relevance and critical impact on economic stability and growth. Its universal acceptance and enduring value continue to make it a central player in global economics.

Part 10: History of Gold in Different Countries

History of Gold in the United States

  • Gold mining in the United States has a long history that dates back to the late 1700s. However, the discovery of gold at the Reed farm in North Carolina in 1799, which was identified as gold in 1802 and subsequently mined, marked the first commercial production of gold in the United States.
  • The Coinage Act of 1792 introduces a bimetallic silver-gold standard, and the Gold Act of 1900 put the United States formally on the gold standard.
  • 1933: prohibition of private gold holdings.
  • The large scale production of gold started with the California Gold Rush in 1848.
  • During World War II, the War Production Board Limitation Order No. 208 closed gold mines, which had a major impact on production until the end of the war.
  • US gold production greatly increased during the 1980s, due to high gold prices and the use of heap leaching to recover gold from disseminated low-grade deposits in Nevada and other states.
  • From 1879 to 1933, the United States was on a gold standard, and paper bills were convertible into gold.
  • 1972: trading of gold futures at the New York Commodities Exchange and the Chicago’s International Money Market.
  • In 1986 the first US bullion coin, the American Gold Eagle is minted.
  • 1997 Taxpayer Relief Act: allowing US IRA holders to buy gold bullion coins and bars for their accounts (if fineness higher than 99.5%).
  • In 2022 the United States was the 5. biggest gold producer worldwide, responsible for 5% of the output.


The story of gold is a tale that stretches across the canvas of human history, shaping civilizations, influencing economies, and inciting exploration. Its significance cannot be understated as it continues to hold a central place in our global society.

Impact of Gold on Civilization and History

Gold’s influence is woven deeply into the fabric of human history. Its allure has been a driver of societal and economic change, a muse to artists, and a spoils of war.

  • In the Ancient world, civilizations like the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans were drawn to gold’s luster and incorruptibility. These societies used gold extensively in arts, religion, and commerce, signifying its integral role in their cultures.
  • Gold’s influence on exploration and settlement is also prominent in history. The tales of El Dorado, the lost city of gold, spurred numerous expeditions into the New World. The Gold Rushes of the 19th century led to mass migrations, and the establishment of many towns and cities in North America and Australia.
  • In times of war, gold has served both as a motivation and a means. It has financed empires’ expansive military campaigns and has often been the coveted prize of conquest.

Gold’s Current Relevance and Future Prospects

Fast forward to the 21st century, the age of cryptocurrencies and digital economies, yet gold continues to retain its timeless appeal. As a symbol of wealth and stability, gold’s relevance in our modern world remains unquestioned.

World gold production from 1681 - 2015
World gold production from 1681 – 2015 (https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/gold-production https://clio-infra.eu)
  • In the current economic climate, gold serves as a hedge against inflation and a ‘safe-haven’ asset in times of financial instability. As of 2023, the World Gold Council estimates that over 197,576 tonnes of gold have been mined throughout history, with roughly 50% of this amount being extracted in the last 50 years. This fact alone underscores gold’s persistent economic relevance.
  • With ongoing economic uncertainties and geopolitical tensions, gold’s appeal as a reliable and stable investment is likely to continue. Its intrinsic value and universal acceptance make it a critical asset for central banks and individual investors alike.

As we look to the future, it’s evident that gold’s luster will continue to captivate us. Be it as a secure investment, a symbol of wealth, or an object of beauty, gold’s allure will endure. As we progress and evolve, we can be sure that gold will continue to play a pivotal role in shaping our world, just as it has done for millennia.


Who first discovered gold in the world?

Gold was first discovered by ancient civilizations. The exact individual or group who first discovered gold is unknown, as gold has been used by humans for over 5,000 years. The earliest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria, dating back to 4,600-4,200 BC.

What is the earliest history of gold?

The earliest history of gold dates back to ancient civilizations. Gold was used by hu-mans as far back as the Copper Age. The first known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria, dating back to 4,600-4,200 BC. Gold was also used by the ancient Egyptians, with the first gold smelting occurring around 3,600 BC.

Where did gold come from first?

Gold is thought to have been formed in the universe through the process of nuclear fu-sion in stars. When these stars explode as supernovae, gold and other heavy elements are scattered across the universe. Some of this gold eventually ended up on Earth. The first gold on Earth likely came from meteorites that bombarded the planet over 200 million years after it was formed.

Why was gold so important in history?

Gold has been important throughout history for several reasons. It is a rare and beautiful metal that does not corrode or tarnish, making it ideal for use in jewelry and decoration. Gold is also relatively easy to work with, as it is malleable and ductile. Additionally, because gold is rare and difficult to obtain, it has often been used as a form of currency or a symbol of wealth and power.

Why was gold the most important to explorers?

Gold was important to explorers for similar reasons as it was to colonizers. The promise of finding gold often funded and motivated exploration. The potential for wealth from gold discoveries could justify the risks and costs associated with exploration. In many cases, the discovery of gold led to significant changes in the areas where it was found, including population growth, economic development, and sometimes conflict.

Gold and Religion: From the 5 World Religions to Shamanism and New Age