Gold Production in 13 Parts: From the History of Mining to the Life Cycle of Gold Mines – All You Need to Know

This is an extensive overview in 13 parts about gold production – from the history of gold mining to the life cycle of gold mines and also: recycling, regulation, challenges, advancements and future trends in gold production.

Jump right to the article below.

Infographic about gold production:


Gold is one of the easiest metals to mine and process: It can be literally picked up in streams in its original form – most other metals appear only in minerals or compounds, making separation or extraction necessary. This is one of the reasons why gold mining and processing goes back thousands of years.

Attractiveness of gold.
Attractiveness of gold.

In this guide, we’ll delve into all important aspects of gold mining:

  • History of gold mining which started thousands of years ago
  • Life cycle of gold mines, the five steps of a gold mine from exploration until reclamation
  • Prospecting, refining and production which also includes modern advancements in mining and processing.
  • Gold recycling as an important source for gold which is responsible for 30% of gold output.
  • Economics, regulations, and challenges: The complex web of economic factors, policies, and contemporary obstacles.
  • Future trends in gold productions stemming from technological advantages around artificial intelligence and big data.

Check out the video: where does gold come from:

With each section, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted nature of gold production. Whether you’re directly involved in the gold trade, an academic, or someone keen on expanding their knowledge, this guide promises insights that will enrich your perspective on this remarkable metal.

Some facts about gold production:

Category Explanation
Historical Significance Gold mining dates back to at least 4000 BCE, during the times of the pharaohs.
Mining Techniques Techniques vary from placer mining, which involves sifting gold from riverbeds (nowadays mostly recreational), to hard rock mining, extracting gold from solid rock formations.
Largest Gold Producer China was the world’s largest gold producer, followed by Russia, Australia and Canada; the United States are number five.
Refining Process Gold refining involves removing impurities to achieve 99.99% purity, using processes like smelting and electro-refining.
Recycling 30% of gold supply comes from recycling, with jewelry and electronics as sources.
Technological Advancements Modern technology, like geospatial data analysis and improved extraction techniques, has revolutionized gold mining, making it more efficient and safer.
Future Trends Trends in gold mining include automation, increased environmental sustainability measures, and exploration in remote regions using advanced technology.

These facts provide a snapshot of the diverse aspects of gold mining and production, reflecting its historical roots, current practices, and future directions.

Let’s start with some facts and figures about gold mining.

Part 1: Overview of Global Gold Production

Gold mining truck.
Gold mining truck.

World gold production

  • Annual production figures: In 2022, global gold production reached 3,100 tonnes. This is a slight increase from previous years’ 3,090 tonnes (metric tons).
  • Historical peak: The highest ever annual gold production was recorded in 2018 and 2019, each year with approximately 3,300 tonnes. See also figure below.
Annual gold production of the last 25 years, from 1995 to 2020 (lbma).
Annual gold production of the last 25 years, from 1995 to 2020 (lbma).

Leading gold producing countries

  • China is in the lead: As of 2022, China remains the largest gold producer, with an annual output of roughly 330 metric tons, which is 11% of the total gold production.
  • Following Russia, Australia and Canada produced about 320 metric tons
  • The United States also contributed significantly, with around 170 metric tons of gold produced in 2022. See table below of the biggest gold producing countries.
Rank Country Production % of Total
1 China 330 11%
2 Russia 320 10%
3 Australia 320 10%
4 Canada 220 7%
5 United States 170 5%
6 Mexico 120 4%
7 Kazakhstan 120 4%
8 South Africa 110 4%
9 Peru 100 3%
10 Uzbekistan 100 3%
11 Ghana 90 3%
12 Indonesia 70 2%
Rest of the World 1,030 33%
World Total 3,100 100%

Source: World Gold Council

Major gold mining companies

Below is a list of the 15 biggest gold mining companies ranked by their market cap:

Biggest gold mining companies.
Biggest publicly listed gold mining companies in the world; as of 2024.

In Summary:

  • The three biggest gold producers by market cap are:
    • Newmont (US)
    • Barrick Gold (Canada)
    • Agnico Eagle Mines (Canada)
  • There are seven Canadian companies (Barrick Gold, Agnico Eagle Mines, Wheaton Precious Metals, Franco-Nevada, Kinross Gold, Pan American Silver and Alamos Gold)
  • The US (Newmont and Royal Gold), South Africa (Gold Fields AngloGold Ashanti) and Canada (Northern Star and Evolution Mining) each have two companies in the list
  • China (Shandong Gold Mining) and Mexico (Fresnillo) each have one major gold producer

Check out in this video Newmont’s Gold Industry’s First Autonomous Haulage System Fleet:

World’s biggest gold mines

See below the world’s biggest gold mines: In the lead are Nevada Gold Mines (United States), Muruntau (Uzbekistan) and Olimpiada (Russia).

Biggest gold mines in the world by annual production (statista).
Biggest gold mines in the world by annual production (statista).
Rank Name Country Tonnes
1 Nevada Gold Mines United States 115.8
2 Muruntau Uzbekistan 66.0
3 Olimpiada Russia 43.2
4 Pueblo Viejo Dominican Republic 30.6
5 Lihir PNG 27.4
6 Cadia Valley Australia 27.1
7 Grasberg Indonesia 26.8
8 Kibali Kongo 25.3
9 Loulo-Gounkoto Mali 22.2
10 Boddington Australia 21.9
Muruntau gold mine in Uzbekistan. One of the world's biggest gold mines; open-pit heap leaching gold extraction, in operation since 1967; Satellite image from 2022 (Nasa).
Muruntau gold mine in Uzbekistan. One of the world’s biggest gold mines; open-pit heap leaching gold extraction, in operation since 1967; Satellite image from 2022 (Nasa).

Read about gold mining in all US states with a still active mining industry: start with gold mining in Nevada, the by far leading gold mining state in the US. Continue with Alaska, California and Arizona.

Part 2: History of Gold Mining

Gold mining goes back thousands of years: first as gold panning from rivers. But already more than 2,000 years ago Romans extracted gold with hydraulic mining. Read more about the history of gold.

From ancient times to the Middle Ages

  • Ancient Mining Techniques: Gold mining originated around 4,000 BC with civilizations like the Egyptians using basic methods like panning in rivers.
  • Roman Innovations: By 300 BC, Romans enhanced gold mining with hydraulic techniques in regions like Spain, extracting significant quantities.
  • Medieval Advances: During medieval times, the introduction of tracks and carts for moving rocks underground marked a significant improvement in mining efficiency.
La Medulas, most important and largest open pit gold mine in the Roman Empire, change of landscape due to hydraulic mining
La Medulas, most important and largest open pit gold mine in the Roman Empire, change of landscape due to hydraulic mining (wikipedia/ Rafael Ibáñez Fernández CC BY-SA 3.0).

Gold rushes: pivotal moments in mining

  • The California Gold Rush (1849): This rush brought a massive influx of prospectors and led to the rapid development of more efficient mining techniques like hydraulic mining, which had a significant environmental impact due to its intensity.
  • The Klondike Gold Rush (Late 1890s): Occurring in the Yukon Territory, this rush further popularized methods such as dredging, which allowed miners to sift through more material in search of gold.
  • The Australian Gold Rush (1851): Triggered by the discovery in New South Wales, this rush saw advancements like deep shaft mining to access gold veins underground. It also led to the development of more complex ore-processing techniques, including the use of sophisticated equipment to handle larger volumes of earth and rock.

Read more about gold rushes.

Gold Dredging, Klondike River in Canada, to extract placer gold with mechanical methods, 1915.
Gold Dredging, Klondike River in Canada, to extract placer gold with mechanical methods, 1915.

20th century: the era of modern mining

  • The introduction of electricity: The widespread use of electricity in the 20th century revolutionized gold mining, leading to more efficient and deeper mining operations.
  • Cyanide leaching emergence: Innovations like cyanide leaching in the late 19th and early 20th centuries allowed for the extraction of gold from lower-grade ore, boosting overall production.
  • Environmental consciousness: The late 20th century also saw a rise in environmental awareness, leading to more sustainable and responsible mining practices.
  • Technological progress: The adoption of modern technologies, including advanced geophysical methods and satellite imagery, has transformed gold exploration and mining in recent decades.

Check out the video about a modern gold mine:

Part 3: Life Cycle of Gold Mines

The life cycle of a gold mines spans several years, sometimes even decades. From the initial exploration to the final reclamation, each stage in the life cycle of a gold mine involves specific operations, expert knowledge, and significant investment. The following overview lists the 5 phases gold mining operations are typically grouped into: exploration, development, operation, closure and reclamation.

Life cycle of gold mines.
Life cycle of gold mines.

First: Exploration: The quest for gold (1 – 10 years)

  • Geological surveys and techniques: Initial exploration relies on advanced geophysical and geochemical methods, including aeromagnetic surveys and soil sampling, to identify promising gold deposits.
  • site assessment and viability: The potential of a site, determined through drilling results and resource estimation, guides investment decisions. For instance, the Boddington mine in Australia commenced with extensive exploration, revealing large gold deposits.
  • Securing investments: The viability of the exploration findings is crucial for securing funding, often millions of dollars, from investors or other mining companies.
Drilling rig for the exploration phase of mine development
Drilling rig for the exploration phase of mine development (wikipedia/ Layne CC BY-SA 3.0).

Second: Development: setting the stage for mining (1- 5 years)

  • Detailed mine planning: This phase involves creating a comprehensive plan for mine layout and operation, including environmental impact assessments. The planning for Nevada’s Carlin Trend, one of the largest gold mining areas, is an example of meticulous mine design.
  • Compliance with environmental standards: Obtaining environmental permits, often a lengthy and complex process, is vital. Mines like Canada’s Diavik Diamond Mine set high standards in environmental compliance.
  • Infrastructure development: Establishing necessary infrastructure, which can range from roads and power supplies to processing plants and worker accommodations. See the image below of the Goldstricke Mine in Nevada to get a better feeling for the infrastructure needed to build a major mine.

Fgure 10: Goldstrike mine in Nevada and its infrastructure, satellite view (Nasa).

Third: Operation: extracting the gold (10 – 30 years)

  • Extraction methods: The choice between open-pit and underground mining is based on deposit depth and economics. The South Deep mine in South Africa, one of the deepest in the world, employs advanced underground mining techniques.
  • Ore processing: Modern gold processing involves several stages, including crushing, grinding, and various separation processes, to extract gold from the ore.
  • Operational efficiency and safety: Continual assessment ensures operational efficiency, safety, and minimal environmental impact, as seen in efficient water management practices at mines like Newmont’s Yanacocha mine in Peru.

Figure 11: Open pit gold mine, Bingham Canyon in Nevada, USA (wikipedia/ Timjarrett CC BY-SA 3.0).

Fourth: Closure: winding down (1 – 5 years)

  • Planned decommissioning: Mines like Australia’s Ranger Uranium Mine have set benchmarks in planned closures, which involve detailed decommissioning strategies to minimize environmental impact.
  • Site rehabilitation: Rehabilitating the site to ensure environmental safety, which might include detoxifying tailing ponds and dismantling infrastructures.

Fifth: Reclamation: after the mining ends

  • Post-mining land use: Successful examples of reclamation include the transformation of mine sites into wildlife reserves or community areas.
  • Ongoing monitoring: Post-closure monitoring is crucial to ensure long-term environmental stability, a practice mandated in many countries’ mining regulations.

Part 4: Gold Exploration

Gold exploration involves searching for gold in various geological settings. This chapter delves into different types of deposits, the odds of success, costs, and exploration methods.

Types of gold deposits

  • Lode (primary) deposits: These are the original source of gold, found in rock formations. Extracting gold from lode deposits usually involves hard rock mining, which can be more complex and costly.
  • Placer (secondary) deposits: Formed from the erosion of primary deposits, placer gold is found in stream beds and alluvial deposits. Mining this gold is generally less expensive and involves methods like panning and sluicing. A peculiarity are Calin-type gold deposits in which gold is invisible to the eye as its very fine-grained; see infographic. They are named after the Calin Trend in Nevada.
calin type gold deposit formation
Calin type gold deposit formation (visualcapitalist).

Prospecting success rates

  • Low odds of success: The journey from exploration to a functioning mine is challenging, with only about 1 in 3,000 discoveries eventually turning into a mine. This statistic underscores the high-risk nature of gold prospecting.

Costs of drilling

  • Drilling Expenses: Drilling is a significant expense in gold prospecting. On average, drilling one meter into the ground can cost around $200. These costs can vary depending on the location and the geological complexity of the area. Drilling is the main expense for mining companies, which costs easily several million dollar.

Check out the video about drilling for gold:

Brownfield vs. greenfield exploration

  • Brownfield exploration: Prospecting in former gold mining sites, known as brownfield exploration, can be advantageous due to the existing knowledge about the geology. These areas have a higher likelihood of yielding additional deposits.
  • Greenfield exploration: In contrast, greenfield exploration targets areas without previous gold discoveries. These ventures are more uncertain but can lead to significant finds.

Techniques in greenfield exploration

  • Aeromagnetic surveys: These surveys measure magnetic anomalies in the earth’s crust to identify potential gold deposits.
  • Gravity surveys: This method detects variations in the earth’s gravitational field to pinpoint ore locations.
  • Seismic surveys: Seismic data help in mapping the subsurface geology, useful in identifying gold-bearing structures.
  • Geochemical surveys: Analyzing soil and rock samples for trace amounts of gold and associated minerals guides further exploration.

Resource classification

  • Measured and indicated resources: These are estimates of the extent and grade of deposits with a reasonable level of certainty.
  • Inferred resources: Inferred resources indicate potential deposits based on geological evidence but require more exploration to confirm.
  • Reserves and proven resources: The term ‘reserve’ refers to a known and economically viable deposit. ‘Proven reserves’ have the highest degree of certainty.

For example, see Equinox Gold overview of their reserves, and resources. The company owns several gold mines in Brazil, Mexico and the US (Castle Mountain and Mesquite Gold Mine, both in California; see also gold mining in California). Below is a visual example of indicated and inferred resources of the New Polaris Project owned by Canagold, located in British Columbia, Canada.

Visual example of indicated and inferred gold resources at the New Polaris Gold Project owend by Canagold, located in British Columbia, Canada (Canagold).
Visual example of indicated and inferred gold resources at the New Polaris Gold Project owend by Canagold, located in British Columbia, Canada (Canagold).

Understanding cut-off grade

  • Cut-off grade: This is the minimum grade at which a unit of ore will be economically mined. The cut-off grade is crucial in determining the potential profitability of a mining project and varies based on gold prices and mining costs.

Part 5: Gold Mining Techniques

Mining for gold has progressed significantly, featuring an array of sophisticated methods: with placer mining of old till sophisticated underground mines that are several thousand meters in the earth. This chapter offers insights into these advanced techniques, highlighted with specific examples and key terminologies. The image below shows placer mining in the 16th century.

Placer mining: The surface approach

Placer Mining in 1556.
Placer Mining in 1556.
  • Panning and sluicing: Gold panning, dating back to ancient civilizations, remains a fundamental technique, especially among individual prospectors. Sluicing, a step up from panning, involves directing river water through sluices to separate gold. This method became prevalent during the California Gold Rush in the mid-1800s.
  • Dredging: Dredging, which gained prominence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, involves using large machines to extract gold from water bodies. For instance, the Yuba Gold Dredge operated in California from 1904 to 1968, processing vast amounts of material.
  • Environmental regulations: Modern placer mining is tightly regulated for environmental protection, as seen in Alaska’s stringent water quality standards.

Hard rock mining: extracting from stone

Check out the video about hard rock gold mining in Australia:

  • Underground mining: This method, used for extracting gold from deep within the earth, involves a network of tunnels. The Homestake Mine in South Dakota, operational from 1878 to 2002, was one of North America’s deepest and most productive gold mines. At a mining depth of 4km underground, the Mpongeng Gold Mine in South Africa, owned by AngloGold Ashanti is the deepest gold mine in the word.
  • Open-pit mining: This technique, used for near-surface deposits, involves excavating large open pits. The Grasberg Mine in Indonesia, one of the world’s largest gold mines, is an example of a successful open-pit operation. Open-pit mining is cheaper than underground mining.
  • Technological evolution: Today’s hard rock mining incorporates advanced machinery, like the remotely operated loaders used in Newmont’s Leeville underground mine in Nevada.
  • Strip ratio: is rock waste removed divided by ore removed. That means, a lower strip ratio makes the mine extremely profitable. During the mine life, the strip ratio increases, meaning, the mine becomes less profitable.
Model of an underground mine (wikipedia/ Kelapstick CC BY-SA 3.0).
Model of an underground mine (wikipedia/ Kelapstick CC BY-SA 3.0).

Innovative extraction techniques

  • Heap Leaching: Introduced in the 1960s, heap leaching involves stacking ore and applying a cyanide solution to extract gold. The process, widely adopted in mines like Barrick Gold’s Veladero in Argentina, is particularly effective for low-grade ores. Read more about heap leaching here.
  • Bio-mining: An emerging, environmentally friendly technique, bio-mining uses microorganisms to extract gold. Though not yet widespread, its potential for sustainable mining is being explored.
Example of heap leaching. Here for uranium; for gold the principles are the same
Example of heap leaching. Here for uranium; for gold the principles are the same (US NRC).

Part 6: Gold Ore Processing

Gold ore processing is a critical phase in the transformation of extracted gold into a usable form. This chapter focuses on the extraction, processing, and recovery methods, emphasizing the importance of optimizing yield and minimizing environmental impact.

Check out the video: from rock to gold:

From extraction to milling: preparing the ore

Techniques used for extraction vary depending on ore type and depth. For instance, Barrick Gold Corporation’s deep underground mines utilize methods distinct from Newmont’s surface mining operations.

  • Crushing and Milling: Once extracted, the ore is processed through crushing and milling. The Goldstrike mine in Nevada, for example, uses efficient autogenous or semi-autogenous grinding mills for this purpose.
  • Size Reduction: The aim is to reduce the ore size to liberate gold from other minerals. Mines like AngloGold Ashanti’s Mponeng Mine exemplify this process, achieving optimal ore particle size for further processing.
Gold ore crusher at Fort Knox Gold Mine in Alaska (wikipedia/ Nick Bonzey CC BY-SA 2.0)
Gold ore crusher at Fort Knox Gold Mine in Alaska (wikipedia/ Nick Bonzey CC BY-SA 2.0)

Gold recovery: extracting the precious metal

  • Gravity concentration: Effective for coarser gold, this method separates gold based on specific gravity differences. Advanced gravity concentrators, such as Falcon Concentrators, have enhanced the efficiency of this process.
  • Flotation: In flotation, chemicals and air bubbles are used to separate gold from the ore. This technique is particularly useful for sulfide ores, as demonstrated in the Boddington mine in Australia.
  • Electrowinning: This process involves passing an electric current through the gold-bearing solution, causing gold to accumulate on the cathode. The extracted gold is then ready for further processing or smelting. Electrowinning is an important part in the gold cyanidation process.
  • Cyanidation: Widely used for low-grade ores, cyanidation involves leaching gold out with a cyanide solution. Mines like Kinross Gold’s Fort Knox mine employ this method with strict safety and environmental measures. Developed by John Steward McArthur; used in 1890 at the Witwatersrand mine in South Africa and in 1891 at the Murcre Mine in Utah. An improved treatment (by using vacuum and zinc dust) is called the Merrill-Crowe process.
  • Carbon Stripping: In carbon-in-pulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) processes, activated carbon is used to adsorb gold from the cyanide solution. Subsequently, carbon stripping removes gold from the carbon, preparing it for electrowinning.
James Arthur, developer of the cynidation process of gold extraction.
James Arthur, developer of the cyanidation process of gold extraction.

Environmental management and safety measures

  • Handling of toxic substances: The use of cyanide, a highly toxic chemical, requires careful handling and disposal, as governed by the International Cyanide Management Code.
  • Tailings disposal: Effective management of tailings, the waste product from ore processing, is essential. Modern mines like those operated by Rio Tinto adopt practices like tailings dams or dry-stacking to reduce environmental impacts.
  • Water reuse and recycling: A focus on water conservation in gold processing operations has led to the increased reuse and recycling of water, reducing the overall environmental footprint of mining activities.

Part 7: Gold Refining and Production

The refining and production of gold are critical steps in transforming extracted ore into valuable gold products. The refiner is usually an entity separate from the gold mining company. The refiner buys from the producer doré bars which he turns into standardized gold bars of a higher purity to be able to sell it on the gold market.

Doré bar

  • Doré bars are produced by the gold mining company on site. They are often a mix of gold and silver and other metals with a gold purity of 50 – 75% of gold and weights of up to 25kg.
  • An approved and credited refining company buys the doré bar, conducts its own assay (to determine the gold purity) and turns it into a standardized gold bar in terms of size and purity to be able to sell it at the international gold markets. Depending on the gold exchange, a purity of between 99.50% and 99.99% is required. For example the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) requires gold bars to weight between 350 and 430 pounds and contain a purity of at least 99.50 percent. Read more about assaying and fineness in the article about gold properties.
Gold Doré Bars.
Gold Doré bars.

Assaying and initial refinement

  • Accurate assaying: Before refining begins, an assay accurately determines the gold content.
  • Smelting: The initial purification step is smelting, where the raw gold is melted and impurities are removed. The Rand Refinery in South Africa, established in 1920, processes up to 35% of the world’s gold, employing complex smelting techniques.

Check out the video about how gold is refined to a fineness of .999:

Advanced refining techniques

  • Electrolytic refining – The Miller Process: Developed by Francis Bowyer Miller in the 1860s, this process involves bubbling chlorine gas through molten gold to purify it to about 99.5%.
  • Chemical refining – The Wohlwill Process: First introduced in 1874, this method uses electrolysis on a gold-cyanide solution to achieve up to 99.999% purity and is employed by top refineries like Valcambi in Switzerland, one of the largest gold refineries globally.

Gold bar and coin production

  • Casting bars: After refining, gold is cast into bars of various sizes. The Royal Canadian Mint, operational since 1908, is renowned for producing high-quality gold bars.
  • Minting coins: The U.S. Mint, established in 1792, produces popular investment gold coins like the American Eagle, which has been in production since 1986.

Video about casting of gold bars:


Quality standards and certification

  • Ensuring purity: Gold bar purity is critical for market value. The London Bullion Market Association (LBMA), founded in 1987, with origins in the 19th century, sets stringent quality standards for gold bars, certifying refineries like PAMP in Switzerland, known for its high purity standards.
  • Hallmarking: Bars are typically hallmarked with details such as purity, weight, and the refiner’s mark. For instance, bars from the Swiss refinery Argor-Heraeus, established in 1951, feature detailed hallmarking. Read more about hallmarking in the article about gold properties.

Global distribution and market role

  • Distribution channels: Refined gold is distributed through global markets, with major trading centers in London, home to the London Bullion Market, and Shanghai, where the Shanghai Gold Exchange was established in 2002.
  • Gold in finance: Gold’s role extends beyond physical use – it’s a key financial asset. Central banks, like the Federal Reserve (founded in 1913), hold substantial gold reserves, influencing global financial stability. Read more about gold and finance in the article about gold uses.

See table below of the ten countries with the highest gold holdings (as of 2023):

Rank Name Tonnes
1 United States 8,133.5
2 Germany 3,359.1
3 Italy 2,451.8
4 France 2,436.4
5 Russia 2,298.5
6 China 2,113.4
7 Switzerland 1,040.0
8 Japan 846.0
9 India 806.7
10 Netherlands 612.5

Part 8: Recycling

Gold recycling is a critical component of the gold industry, offering both environmental and economic advantages.

On average 30% of gold is recycled, 70% is from gold mines (average of last 20 years).
On average 30% of gold is recycled, 70% is from gold mines (average of last 20 years).

Crucial role of gold recycling

  • Environmental benefits: Recycling gold has a much lower environmental footprint as compared to gold mining. For instance, recycling gold uses approximately 90% less energy than extracting new gold, significantly lowering carbon emissions.
  • Contribution to gold supply: Recycled gold forms a substantial part of the global gold supply. According to the World Gold Council, recycled gold accounted for 30% of the gold supply of the last 20 years.
  • Gold recycling increased in first quarter 2023 by 5%, whereas gold supply from mines grew only 2%.

Gold recycling processes and challenges

  • Primary sources: The two main sources of recyclable gold are jewelry and electronic waste. For instance, it’s estimated that electronic waste alone contributes approximately 7% to the global gold supply. See also uses of gold.
  • Refining techniques: The refining of recycled gold involves processes such as melting, smelting, and electro-refining. Major refineries like Metalor and Heraeus play a crucial role in this process, ensuring the purity and quality of recycled gold.
Sources of recycled gold: electronics, jewelry, coins and gold teeth.
Sources of recycled gold: electronics, jewelry, coins and gold teeth.

Economic impact and market dynamics

  • Price sensitivity: The volume of gold recycled is often influenced by gold prices. Higher gold prices typically lead to an increase in recycling as individuals sell off old jewelry. During the price surge in 2011, when gold prices peaked at around $1,900 per ounce, recycling rates also spiked.
  • Recycling during economic downturns: Economic crises often lead to increased gold recycling as individuals turn to gold assets for liquidity. The 2008 financial crisis, for instance, saw a notable increase in gold recycling as gold prices remained relatively stable compared to other assets.

Challenges in the recycling industry

  • Assuring purity: Ensuring the purity of recycled gold is essential. Refineries utilize advanced assaying techniques to determine the exact content of gold and other metals in recycled materials.
  • Supply chain complexities: The supply chain for collecting and processing recyclable gold, especially from electronic waste, is complex. Companies like Umicore are at the forefront of refining gold from e-waste, tackling both logistical and technological challenges.

Part 9: Economics of Gold Production

In the year 2000, it cost around $300 to mine one ounce of gold; 22 years the production cost stood at nearly $1,500. The production price hovers in most years slightly below the gold price. This is understandable. Mining companies, as commercial enterprises, must make a profit on their operations. See illustration below about the development of gold production cost from 2000 till 2022.

Cost of gold production from 2000 till 2022 (earth investment).
Cost of gold production from 2000 till 2022 (earth investment).

Detailed cost analysis in gold production

  • Production costs variability: Gold mining costs vary significantly, influenced by geographical location, mining methods, and ore quality. For instance, the average all-in sustaining cost (AISC) for efficient mines like Barrick Gold’s operations in North America may be as low as $800 per ounce, while less efficient mines may experience costs exceeding $1,200 per ounce.
  • Impact of ore grade on costs: Mines with high-grade ore, like the Fosterville Mine in Australia, with ore grades over 30 grams per tonne, can often operate at lower costs compared to mines with lower grade ore.

Understanding and calculating strip ratio

  • Strip ratio explanation: The strip ratio is a key metric in mining, especially for open-pit operations. It is calculated as the amount of waste rock that must be removed to extract a certain quantity of ore. For example, a strip ratio of 3:1 means that three tonnes of waste rock need to be removed to extract one tonne of ore.
  • Impact on operational costs: A lower strip ratio often indicates more cost-effective mining. For example, a mine with a strip ratio of 1:1 will typically have lower mining costs than one with a 5:1 ratio, due to the reduced volume of waste material handled.

Life-of-mine cost considerations

  • Capital expenditure: The initial investment in mining infrastructure can be substantial. For example, the development of the Boddington mine by Newmont required an investment of over $3 billion.
  • Operational expenditure over time: Operational costs can fluctuate throughout a mine’s life. Factors such as decreasing ore grades and increasing strip ratios can lead to rising operational costs in the mine’s later stages.
  • End-of-life costs: Closure and reclamation costs can be significant, often running into millions of dollars, depending on the size of the operation and environmental regulations.

Part 10: Regulations and Policies in Gold Mining

The gold mining industry is heavily regulated to ensure environmental sustainability, worker safety, and compliance with ethical standards. This chapter examines the key regulations and policies shaping the gold mining sector, supported by specific examples and data. As an example, see visualization below about the major mining laws in Chile.

Regulatory framework of mining in Chile (OECD).
Regulatory framework of mining in Chile (OECD).

Environmental laws and policies

  • Stringent standards for environmental protection: Gold mining companies must adhere to strict environmental regulations. For instance, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enforces the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act, which mandate detailed environmental assessments and adherence to water quality standards.
  • Global environmental initiatives: Internationally, initiatives like the United Nations’ International Resource Panel work towards sustainable resource management, including in the gold mining sector.

Diverse regulatory frameworks across nations

  • Voluntary international standards: The International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC), established in 2002, provides a voluntary framework for the gold mining industry to manage cyanide responsibly.
  • Country-specific regulations: National mining regulations vary widely. For example, in Australia, mining regulations differ between states, with states like Western Australia having their own Mining Act (the Mining Act 1978). See graph below about the involved ministries in Mexico concerning mining.
Mexican government agencies involved in mining (OECD).
Mexican government agencies involved in mining (OECD).

Safety and labor standards in mining

  • Worker safety regulations: In the U.S., the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) enforces safety regulations in mining operations. For example, MSHA’s regulations mandate regular safety training and strict adherence to operational safety standards.
  • International labor standards: The International Labor Organization (ILO) sets global standards for labor practices, including in mining, emphasizing the prevention of child labor and the assurance of fair working conditions.

Land rights and legal considerations

  • Complexities in mining rights: Navigating mining rights and land ownership is challenging. In countries like South Africa, mining companies often engage in lengthy negotiations with local communities and governments to secure mining rights, as per the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act of 2002.
  • Intellectual property in mining technology: As technology plays a larger role in mining, companies must also navigate intellectual property laws. Patents on mining technology and processes are crucial for companies like Rio Tinto and BHP.

Promoting Sustainable and Ethical Mining

  • Sustainability initiatives in mining: The industry is seeing a shift towards more sustainable practices. For instance, the World Gold Council’s Responsible Gold Mining Principles (RGMPs), introduced in 2019, focus on ethical, social, and environmental practices in gold mining. See illustration below.
  • Certifications for ethical mining: Certifications like the Fairmined and Fairtrade standards provide assurance that gold is mined under ethical conditions, promoting responsible mining practices.
World Gold Council’s Responsible Gold Mining Principles (RGMPs)
Responsible Gold Mining Principles (RGMPs) from World Gold Council (Gold Council).

Part 11: Technological Advancements in Gold Mining

The gold mining industry has experienced a technological revolution, significantly enhancing efficiency, safety, and environmental sustainability. This chapter explores these advancements with specific examples and data.

Automation and AI in modern mining

  • Automation in operations: In 2020, more than 500 autonomous Caterpillar mining trucks were in operation worldwide (see also here). Leading mining companies like BHP and Rio Tinto have incorporated automation in their operations. For instance, Rio Tinto’s Pilbara mines in Australia use more than 80 autonomous trucks, leading to a 15% increase in efficiency.
  • Artificial intelligence: AI is revolutionizing gold mining. Goldcorp, for example, used IBM’s Watson technology for geological analysis, helping in identifying new gold deposit locations.
Autonomous mining truck, CAT 797F
Autonomous mining truck, CAT 797F (caterpillar).

Recent innovations in gold extraction and processing

  • Advanced ore sorting: Sensor-based ore sorting technology, such as that used in AngloGold Ashanti’s mines, has been instrumental in enhancing gold recovery rates, reducing energy consumption by up to 15%.
  • Carbon-in-pulp (CIP) method: The CIP method, a significant advancement in gold processing, allows for higher gold recovery. For instance, the process used in the Nevada Gold Mines, a joint venture between Barrick Gold and Newmont Goldcorp, results in recovery rates of over 90%. See visualization of the process below.
Carbon in pulp gold extraction
Carbon in pulp gold extraction (Xinhai).

Addressing environmental and safety concerns with technology

  • Environmental monitoring: Drones and satellite imagery are used for environmental monitoring. The Canadian Malartic mine, for example, uses drone technology for monitoring rehabilitation efforts and ensuring compliance with environmental standards.
  • Enhanced safety through technology: The use of wearable safety devices and collision detection systems has improved miner safety. For instance, Newcrest Mining employs wearable technology to monitor workers’ health and environmental conditions in real-time.

Data analytics and its impact on mining

  • Big data applications: Mining companies analyze vast datasets to optimize operations. For example, Kinross Gold Corporation uses data analytics for predictive maintenance, reducing equipment downtime.
  • Predictive analytics: Predictive maintenance models, such as those implemented by Newmont, can forecast machinery failures, thereby enhancing operational efficiency and reducing maintenance costs.

Part 12: Challenges in Gold Production

The gold mining industry faces significant challenges, ranging from environmental issues to economic pressures.

Environmental challenges and sustainability

  • Land disturbance and ecosystem Impact: Open-pit mining, one of the most common methods, can lead to extensive land disturbance. For instance, the Super Pit in Australia, one of the largest open-pit mines, spans over 3.5 kilometers in length and 1.5 kilometers in width, affecting the local topography and ecosystems. See image below.
  • Water usage and pollution concerns: Gold mining is water-intensive, with operations like the Grasberg mine in Indonesia using millions of liters daily. Additionally, the use of toxic chemicals like cyanide and mercury poses significant environmental risks.
Super Pit gold mine in Australia 2010
Super Pit gold mine in Australia 2010 (NASA).

Economic pressures and market fluctuations

  • Sensitivity to gold prices: Gold mining profitability is closely tied to market prices. The dramatic drop in gold prices from 2012 to 2013, for example, led to the suspension or closure of several mining operations worldwide.
  • Rising operational costs: As surface gold deposits deplete, mining companies delve deeper, increasing operational costs. The average cost of gold production was around $300 in 2000. 20 years later, the price stood at around $1500.

Social and community impact

  • Local community displacement: Large-scale mining operations can lead to the displacement of local communities. The Porgera mine in Papua New Guinea, for example, has faced criticism and legal challenges due to its impact on local residents.
  • Labor Challenges: The mining sector often grapples with labor issues, including ensuring safety standards and fair wages. In South Africa, a major gold-producing country, mining strikes have frequently occurred due to wage disputes.
Struggle for gold in the Amazonas (book cover from Sebastião Salgado).
Struggle for gold in the Amazonas (cover from Sebastião Salgado’s book).

Depletion of gold reserves

  • Scarce high-grade deposits: High-grade gold deposits are becoming rarer, leading miners to explore more remote and less economically viable deposits. For instance, gold grades have decreased over the years, with some South African mines reporting grades as low as 5 grams per tonne, compared to the historical average of 10 grams per tonne. According to some estimates,
  • Around 2050 gold mining could reach a point of economic unfeasability (read more). Underground gold reserves are estimated to be around 50,000 in the US. This gives the country around 17 more years of gold extraction, if no new deposits will be found. (read more).

Navigating regulatory and geopolitical complexities

  • Stringent regulations: Mining companies face stringent environmental regulations. The implementation of stricter rules, like those under the EU’s Mining Waste Directive, increases compliance costs.
  • Geopolitical risks: Political instability in mining regions can pose significant risks. In regions like West Africa, mining companies must navigate uncertain political environments, impacting operations and investments.
Peak gold
Will we soon reach peak gold?

Part 13: Future Trends in Gold Mining and Production

The gold mining industry is evolving rapidly, driven by technological innovation, environmental sustainability efforts, and changing market dynamics.

Global gold production forecast

  • Projected decline in output: Analysts anticipate a gradual decrease in global gold production in the coming years. For instance, after peaking at 3,300 metric tons in 2018, studies suggest a potential drop due to exhausted reserves in prolific gold mining regions.
  • Shift to lower-grade ores: Major mining companies are increasingly focusing on lower-grade ores. For example, the average ore grade in major South African mines has dropped significantly, from over 10 grams per ton in the 1970s to below 5 grams per ton in recent years.

Advancements in mining technology

  • Autonomous and remote operations: Leading mining companies like Rio Tinto are expanding their use of autonomous vehicles. Rio Tinto’s Mine of the Future™ program, for instance, includes driverless trucks and trains in its Pilbara operations. See video below.
  • AI and big data in exploration: Companies are leveraging AI to analyze geological data more efficiently. Goldspot Discoveries, for instance, uses AI algorithms to identify potential mineral deposits, reducing exploration costs and time.

Video about first autonomous haulage flee system in the gold mining industry:

Sustainability and ethical mining Initiatives

  • Green mining technologies: The push for sustainable mining is gaining momentum. For example, the Canadian Borden Gold Project, operated by Newmont, is one of the first fully electric underground gold mines, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly (read more).
  • Ethical gold mining practices: Transparency and ethical sourcing in gold mining are becoming increasingly important. The LBMA’s Responsible Gold Guidance, for example, sets ethical standards for gold sourcing. See video below.

Check out the video about “why ethical gold is hard to find”:


In this guide, we’ve taken a comprehensive look at gold mining. We’ve covered:

  • Gold mining is mostly open-pit but also underground, placer mining usually only recreational.
  • Environmental responsibility: The industry faces ongoing challenges in balancing efficient production with environmental stewardship.
  • Technological advancements: The use of cutting-edge technology is revolutionizing gold extraction, refining, and recycling, enhancing efficiency and safety.
  • Regulatory dynamics: Strict regulations and policies play a crucial role in shaping practices and ensuring sustainable and ethical mining.

Over the centuries, gold has kept its appeal – as a store of value and investment, but also as jewelry and myriad applications: in the medical field, in electronics and in the haute couture. Therefore, gold mining and production will keep its importance as well.

The allure of gold
The allure of gold.


What is gold mining?

Gold mining is the process of extracting gold ore from the earth, which is then refined into pure gold. It includes several techniques like placer, underground, and open-pit mining.

Where is gold mostly mined?

Gold is mined worldwide, with the largest producers being China, Australia, and Russia. Significant mining operations also exist in the United States, Canada, and South Africa.

How is gold extracted from the ore?

Gold is extracted from ore through various processes including crushing, grinding, and chemical leaching or flotation. The exact method depends on the nature of the ore.

What are the environmental impacts of gold mining?

Gold mining can have several environmental impacts, including deforestation, habitat destruction, and water pollution due to chemicals used in the extraction process.

Can gold be recycled?

Yes, gold is highly recyclable and a significant portion of the world’s gold supply comes from recycled sources, including old jewelry, electronics, and dental materials.

What are the main uses of gold?

Gold is used for jewelry, investment, and industrial purposes. Its conductivity and resistance to corrosion make it valuable in electronics and aerospace industries.

How is the price of gold determined?

Gold prices are influenced by supply and demand dynamics, global economic conditions, currency values, and geopolitical events. It is actively traded on various exchanges.

What technological advancements are impacting gold mining?

Advancements like drone technology, geospatial data analysis, and improved extraction and refining techniques are making gold mining more efficient and environmentally friendly.

What is the role of regulations in gold mining?

Regulations ensure that gold mining is conducted in an environmentally responsible and ethically sound manner. They cover areas like environmental protection, worker safety, and fair labor practices.

What are the future trends in gold mining?

Future trends include increased automation, greater emphasis on sustainable and responsible mining practices, and exploration in remote regions using advanced technology.